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Ashlar is one of the earliest building materials that mankind has used to build shelters and tools. Paleolithic period shows that in the past rock was more used than metal. The rocks are generally divided into three categories of igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks in terms of general and applied properties. Decorative rock is a natural rock which is cut to the desired size and after rubbing it's installed in the interior and exterior facades and floor of the building. The following is the common word use for ashlar in Latin: Facing stone, cut stone, dimension stone, curb stone, tom stone, monumental stone, etc. Ashlars include alabaster, crystal (porcelain), marble, travertine, sandstone, granite and lime stone.

Features of ashlars

Rock hardness:

The range of rock hardness is very broad, and the hardest rock is granite and generally the more hardness the rock has, its extraction and processing will require more time and cost.

Rock color:

The color of the rocks is wide-ranging, and some of the rocky minerals will change over time due to atmospheric conditions.

Rock tenacity:

Rock tenacity is affected by atmospheric and chemical factors. Some of these weathering factors, such as freezing or UV-rays, physically affect the rock.

The division of rocks suitable for use in stone facade and ashlar

Conglomerate and Sandstone

Conglomerate rocks are in the form of thick layers on the cement and limestone bed, and the color of the parts and the background cement have good color differences. These types of conglomerate rocks are ideal. If it has a thick layer and has a good density, sandstone is used as an ashlar in the interior and exterior facade of the building.

Calcareous or dolomitic rocks

Calcareous or dolomitic rocks constitute the most part of decorative and façade rocks that their distinctive features and characteristics are their high hardness and tenancy, and good layout and their ability to be rubbed.

  • Types of limestone or dolomite are: - Travertine - Marble
  • Igneous rocks: - Granite - Rhyolite
  • Metamorphic rocks: - Marble - Gneiss

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